Notes 
     
The following abbreviations have been used to simplify endnote citations.
     
     
Baker Jean H. Baker. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography. New York. W. W. Norton & Company.1987.
     
Berry Stephen Berry. House of Abraham. Boston. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2007.
     
Clinton Catherine Clinton. Mrs. Lincoln: A Life. New York. HarperCollins. 2009.
     
Carpenter Francis Bicknell Carpenter. Six Months in the White House. England. Dodo Press. 2010. Original 1866.
     
DePastino Todd DePastino. Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America. Illinois. University of Chicago Press. 2005.
     
Foote Shelby Foote. The Civil War. New York. Random House. 1974.
     
Helm Katherine Helm. The True Story of Mary, Wife of Lincoln. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1970. Original 1928.
     
Keckley Elizabeth Keckley. Behind the Scenes: Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House. New York. G. W. Carlton & Co. 1858.
     
Montgomery Morton Montgomery. Historical and Biographical Annals of Berks County Pennsylvania. Chicago. J. H. Beers & Co. 1909.
     
Neeley/McMurtry Mark E. Neeley and R. Gerald McMurtry. The Insanity File: The Case of Mary Todd Lincoln. Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press. 1986.
     
Pritchard/Emerson Myra Helm Pritchard, edited and annotated by Jason Emerson. The Dark Days of Abraham Lincoln's Widow. Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press. 2011.
   
Turner Justin and Linda Turner. Mary Lincoln: Her Life and Letters. New York. Alfred A. Knopf. 1972.
     
Vincent Glyn Vincent. The Unknown Night: the Genius and Madness of R. A. Blakelock, an American Painter. New York. Grove Press. 2003.
     
     
     

1. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 11. Footnote n. This paragraph is drawn verbatim. Emerson's captivating account of his search for and eventual discovery of Pritchard's manuscript concerning Mary Lincoln's trial served as the basis for the Editors' Introduction.

2. Pritchard/Emerson. pp. x-xi. Emerson notes this citation from Myra Helmer Pritchard, "Statement Regarding the Disposal of Mary Lincoln Letters," Mar. 1, 1928, Myra Pritchard Family Papers. p. 158. Necessary changes have been made for contextual purposes. This requirement will not be further noted but accepted as understood throughout.

3. Pritchard/Emerson. p. xv, xvi.

4. It is with feelings...note. Turner. p. 110. Letter to James Gordon Bennett. 10/25/1861. My life...gratified. Turner. p. 302. Letter to Elizabeth Blair Lee. 12/11/1865. Ill luck...birth. Baker. p. 308. From Fragment Letter to Mary Harlan Lincoln. Undated. Abraham Lincoln was shot on this date in 1865.

5. I was accused...upon. Baker. p.174. I seemed...South. Helm. p. 255. two-thirds...secesh. and congressional hearing taken from Foote. Book 1. p. 252.

6. Yes, yes...conspirators. Keckley. Kindle Loc. 1254-56.

7. His application...1875. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 32. "I have no doubt my mother is insane." Baker. p. 321 from Chicago Inter Ocean May 20, 21, 1875. I have been...blood. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 120. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 6/18/1876. God is just...life. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 118. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 6/18/1876.

8. I did not...sanctified. Mary Lincoln to Mrs. White, December 14, 1866 in Gilder Lehrman Collection, New York Historical Society. Berry. p. 186. A very slight...near. Turner. p. 256. Letter to Charles Sumner. 7/4/1865.

9. I fear...letter. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 134. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 12/1/1876. Perhaps, never in history...case. Turner. p. 308. Letter to Elihu Washburne. 12/15/1865. Consider ...not. Turner. p. 336. Letter to Alexander Williamson. 2/17/1866. Please say...one. Turner. p. 702 Letter to Edward Lewis Baker Jr. 8/29/1880. You must...immediately. Turner p. 96. Letter to Hannah Shearer. 8/1/1861.

10. Your note...reply. Turner. p. 304. Letter to David Davis. 12/13/1865.

11. The four decades concept taken from Neeley/McMurtry. p.123.

12. Carpenter records this date in Carpenter. p. 8. The reputation...man. Turner. p. 366. Letter to Simon Cameron. 5/19/1866. I always..."Emancipation Proclamation." Turner. p. 278. Letter to Francis Bicknell Carpenter. 7/17/1865. My nervous state...1861. Turner. p.283. Letter to Francis Bicknell Carpenter. 11/15/1865. Carpenter requested a photograph of Mary Lincoln for he often used them as references for his portrait work.

13. I only pray...evil. Turner. p. 50. Letter to Emilie Todd Helm. 9/20/1857. Praying you...us. Turner. p 300. Letter to Elihu B. Washburne. 12/9/1865.

14. With much pleasure...thoughts. Turner. p. 45. Letter to Emilie Todd Helm. 11/23/1856. Although I am...hands. Turner. pp. 460-461. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/23/1867. When I think...me. Turner. p. 534. Letter to Sally Orne. 12/12/1869.

15. Very vehement...man. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 128. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 7/14/1876. He will prove...matter. Turner. p. 711. Letter to Noyes W. Miner. 1/3/1882. Who does not...means. Turner. p. 104. Letter to Elizabeth Todd Grimsley. 9/13/1861. He was a...sin. Turner. p. 633. Letter to Edward Lewis Baker. 4/11/1877. "monster of mankind." Baker. p. 349.

16. Bloom clipping sent by Mr. Jeremy McGraw, New York Public Library, in an email dated 6/15/11. The unsourced image was stamped, "June 30, 1907." The same image was reproduced in the Reading Eagle. p. 6. 4/17/1910. Biographical information taken from Bloom's obituary in the Reading Eagle. 12/12/1929. Blakelock association reviewed in Vincent. pp. 200-201. Account of Bloom's arrest and martyrdom statement from DePastino. p. 157.

17. This man...transgressor. Turner. p. 220. Letter to Abram Wakeman. 4/13/1865. Even if...spots. Turner. p. 105. Letter to Elizabeth Todd Grimsley. 9/29/1861. I write...frequently. Turner. p. 684. Letter to Edward Lewis Baker, Jr. 6/22/1879.

18. Bloom's passport supplied by genealogical expert, Ms. Susan Buehler, East Lansing, Michigan, in an email dated 4/20/11.

19. For some time...unintentional. Turner. p. 61. Letter to Hannah Shearer. 1/1/1860. I am coughing...write. Turner. p. 577. Letter to Mary Harlan Lincoln. 9/10/1870

20. I have been...man. Turner. p. 345. Letter to Sally Orne. 3/15/1866. The love of money is the root of all evil. Baker. p. 304.

21. I fear...men. Turner. p. 455. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/17/1867.

22. These men were...anguish. Baker. p. 303. God is just...conscience. Turner. p. 453. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/15/1867.

23. I have determined...vilified. Turner. p. 443. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/13/1867. The serpents...horror. Turner. p. 200. Letter to Abram Wakeman. 1/30/1865. We cannot mistake the trysting hour. Turner. p. 22. Letter to Mercy Ann Levering. 12/15/1840.

24. Your very welcome...received. Turner. p. 701. Letter to Edward Lewis Baker, Jr. 8/29/1880. Say nothing...to any one. Turner. p. 383. Letter to Alexander Williamson. 8/19/1866.

25. It is impossible...circle. Turner. p. 682. Letter to Edward Lewis Baker, Jr. 6/22/1879. How much I regret...very quiet. Pritchard. p. 26. Letter to Myra. Bradwell. 1/26/1873. It appears...let loose. Turner. p. 441. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/9/1867. In yesterday's...aspersions. Turner. p. 180. Letter to Abram Wakeman. 9/23/1864. Was there ever...my head? Turner. p. 442. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/13/1867. The conduct...whole business. Turner. p. 442. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/13/1867.

26. I am writing...mental suffering. Turner. p. 440. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/6/1867. The same evil spirit...public journals. Turner. p. 535. Letter to Sally Orne. 12/16/1869. From today's...in this manner. Turner. p. 448. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/2/1867.

27. What freedom...best for me. Turner. p. 551. Letter to Sally Orne. 2/18/1870. When will...cease. Turner. p. 181. Letter to Abram Wakeman. 9/23/1864. I am sufficiently...against me. Turner. p. 537. Letter to Sally Orne. 12/21/1869.

28. I tremble...humiliating position. Turner. p. 535. Letter to Sally Orne. 12/16/1869. In grief...the sufferer. Turner. p. 626. Letter to Elizabeth Todd Edwards. 3/19/1877. I could not be more traduced. Turner. p. 441. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/9/1867. Time brings...is completed. Turner. p. 502. Letter to Eliza Slataper. 2/17/1869. When you receive...write me. Turner. p. 691. Letter to Edward Lewis Baker, Jr. 10/4/1879.

29. They injure...lies and villany. Turner. p. 443. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/13/1867. God does not allow...Maker. Turner. p. 634. Letter to Edward Lewis Baker, Jr. 4/11/1877. I fear I am in villanous hands. Turner. p. 461. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/23/1867.

30. I closed...to say. Turner. p. 450. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/9/1867. What enemies we do have to contend with. Turner. p. 261. Letter to Anson Henry. 7/17/1865.

31. God...great a change? Keckley. Kindle Loc. 1413. You would not recognize me now. Turner. p. 441. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/8/1867.

32. Pass my imperfections...a production. Turner. p. 19. Letter to Mercy Ann Levering. 7/23/1840. Severe retribution...these wretches. Turner. p. 599. Letter to James Knowlton. 8/3/1872. What a vile...they are. Turner. p. 440. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/8/1867. If their day...in the next. Turner. p. 443. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/13/1867.

33. Please modify...own perusal. Turner. p. 569. Letter to James Smith. 6/22/1870. entre nous. Mary Lincoln uses this expression in numerous letters. I fear...an invalid person. Turner. p. 599. Letter to James Knowlton. 8/3/1872.

34. It...me. Turner. p. 108. Letter to Montgomery Meigs. 10/4/1861. Trusting...respectfully, Turner. p. 81. Letter to William H. Seward. 3/22/1861.

35. You know...all of this. Turner. pp. 441-442. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/9/1867. My Gethsemane is ever with me. Turner. p. 627. Letter to Elizabeth Todd Edwards. 3/19/1877.

36. In an email dated 4/21/11, Ms. Cindy Molnar, Head of Conservation, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., stated: "The John Henry Brown miniature of Abraham Lincoln was commissioned by Judge John M. Read. Judge Read gave the miniature to Mary Todd Lincoln when she asked for it. The piece then passed to Robert Todd Lincoln, his daughter Mary Lincoln Isham, and then to her son Lincoln Isham. The NPG acquired it from his estate through a dealer in 1975."

37. Time makes all things right. Turner. p. 466. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 12/27/1867.

38. This 1982 image by John Mahtesian was taken when our father was thirty-four years old. Mahtesian has several photographs in the Art Institute's collection. The imaged painting is by Frans Snyders, 1614.

39. I had scarcely...to feel better. Turner. p. 108. Letter to Hannah Shearer. 10/6/1861. Please know...on High. Turner. p. 525. Letter to Sally Orne. 11/20/1869.

40. You can scarcely...very elegant. Turner. p. 50. Letter to Emilie Todd Helm. 9/20/1857.

41. Write very soon...affords. Turner. p. 18. Letter to Mercy Ann Levering. 7/23/1840. Please present my best regards, to your family. Turner. p. 680. Letter to Jacob Bunn. 4/23/1879.

42. I am glad...greatest affection. Turner. p. 505. Letter to Mary Harlan Lincoln. 3/22/1869. I am pleased...in safety. Turner. p. 108. Letter to Hannah Shearer. 10/6/1861.

43. Write me, do, when you receive this. Turner. p. 449. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/9/1867.

44. I am greatly...scarcely understand it. Turner. p. 442. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/13/1867. I was unable to sleep last night. Keckley. Kindle Location 2074.

45. Your letters...heard from you. Turner. p. 301. Letter to Elizabeth Blair Lee. 12/11/1865.

46. With kind remembrances...gratefully. Turner. p. 684. Letter to Jacob Bunn. 7/10/1879.

47. It was a great pleasure...last letter. Turner. p. 564. Letter to James Smith. 6/4/1870. Since I last wrote...in my back. Turner. p. 546. Letter to Sally Orne. 2/11/1870.

48. I know him to be all that is excellent. Turner. p. 521. Letter to Sally Orne. 11/7/1869. Gifted with a fine intellect and unerring judgment. Turner. p. 534. Letter to Sally Orne. 12/12/1869.

49. I hope your family...respectfully. Turner. p. 628. Letter to Jacob Bunn. 3/19/1877.

50. Signature examples: Mr. David Quinlan (Lyons Falls example); Ms. Cindy Lou Molnar (National Portrait Gallery example); Ms. Laura J. Latman (Bowdoin College example); and Ms. Sarah K. Cahill (The Union League Club example).

51. My very dear Friend. Turner. p. 550. Letter to Sally Orne. 2/18/1870. Words are powerless...once more. Turner. p. 519. Letter to Sally Orne. 10/18/1869. You have been so frequently...I feel towards you. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 132. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 12/1/1876.

52. I feel assured now...will not be silent. Turner. p. 191. Letter to Charles Sumner. 11/20/1864. Always your affectionate friend. Turner. p. 552. Letter to Sally Orne. 3/31/1870.

53. Notwithstanding...yesterday. Turner. p. 520. Letter to Sally Orne. 10/23/1869. As to...company. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 118. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 6/18/1876.

54. I am sure...triumph. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 120. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 6/18/1876. It is a most malignant invention. Turner. p. 535. Letter to Sally Orne. 12/16/1869. There is...in the case. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 124. Letter to Judge Bradwell. 6/22/1876.

55. Fail me not. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 68. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 8/?/1875. Write and tell me everything. Pritchard/Emerson. p. 136. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 12/1/1876.

56. Jacob Neafie is listed in Wikipedia and other sources. He sold ships to the Union during the Civil War and developed the first submarine to see service with the U.S. Navy. Thanks to Ms. Susan Buehler and Mr. Robert Schneider for their breakthrough work on Bloom's family name and all of the cited genealogical information. Abraham Van Doren Honeyman. Joannes Nevius and His Descendants. Honeyman & Company. Plainfield, N.J. 1900. Entry 902.

57. The breakthrough information was sent in an email dated April 29, 2011.

58. Morton L. Montgomery. Historical and Biographical Annals of Berks County Pennsylvania. J.H. Beers. 1909. p. 874.

59. Eddie isn't listed and may have been living elsewhere at the time. His obituary is recorded in the Reading Eagle. August 16, 1906. p. 1; and in Montgomery. p. 874. He was born in 1869 and died at the age of 37.

60. Best living friend. Turner. p. 440. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/6/1867; and in Keckley. Kindle location 2205.

61. Susan Pflum's obituary is recorded in the Reading Eagle. December 27, 1910. p. 1. The death of the fourth Mrs. Neafie is recorded in The Yearbook of the Pennsylvania Society. 1913. p. 200.

62. Hoping to find a record of the painting, Mark Pflum checked the Prothonotary Office in Reading and Philadelphia for the possibility that Lew's or Susan's wills were on record. They were not. The family is buried at Reading's Charles Evans Cemetery. Surprisingly, Lew is buried by himself, and away from the family plot, in a distant part of the cemetery.

63. What is to be...of destiny. Recorded by Helm. p. 111. Undated.

64. The most villainous plot...my griefs. Pritchard. p. 118. Letter to Myra Bradwell. 6/18/1876.

65. Bloom's obituary includes the following, "Mr. Bloom was an art expert and dabbled in oil paintings." Helm, pp. 116-117, records "Mary Lincoln was a 'dyed-in-the-wool Presbyterian.' In Washington they joined the First Presbyterian Church."

66. He, is a smooth faced...peculiar benefit. Turner. p. 336. Letter to Alexander Williamson. 2/17/1866. The love of money is the root of all evil. Baker. p. 304.

67. I believe...a tool. Turner. p. 448. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/2/1867. "Revenge is sweet" especially to womankind...[Milch] was a dirty dog. Turner. p. 415. Letter to David Davis. 3/6/1867.

68. So many falsehoods were told in these papers. Turner. p. 450. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 11/9/1867. What a world...to suffer. Turner. p. 450. Letter to Elizabeth Keckley. 10/8/1867.

69. They know nothing about me. Baker. p. 318. In a May 15, 2011 email, jewelry experts Elyse Karlin and Yvonne Markowitz stated, "I wanted to get back to you after I spoke to Yvonne who is in agreement with me. None of these pieces look like specific pieces MTL owned that we are aware of."

70. Dr. James Cornelius offered the brooch's proper provenancial reference.

71. The case, with all its details, are now quite familiar to you. Turner. p. 142. Letter to Edwin D. Morgan. 11/13/1862.

There is a handwritten James Hickey note in the painting's file stating, "This is a painting of Mary Lincoln owned by R. T. L. Beckwith [1904-1985] in 1970. Beckwith is the great grandson of Mary Lincoln and said his mother [Jessie Harlan Lincoln, 1875-1948] purchased painting back." Robert Beckwith was the last living descendant of Abraham Lincoln. It is possible Beckwith's mother purchased the painting from the Milch Galleries in 1929, and from her it went to Beckwith, and then finally to the Library. The 1929 accounts of the Milch Galleries were reviewed and there was no record of a Carpenter sale, a sale of an image of Mary Lincoln, or a payment to Bloom. The records were obtained from the Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C.

The cited 1965 Chicago Tribune article states, "At Neafie's death in 1884, the portrait passed to his nurse, Susan Deborah Bloom, and finally, about 1930, to Mrs. Lincoln's great-grandson, Robert Lincoln Beckwith. Lincoln authority Ralph Newman of Chicago discovered the portrait in the Beckwith home several months ago and persuaded Beckwith to loan it for display in the Illinois State Historical Library during the recent 8th national assembly of the United States Civil War commission." The incorrect Neafie reference would have come from the affidavit, but one must infer that the writer spoke to Newman, who lived in Chicago, and it was Newman who recounted what Beckwith told him concerning ownership "about 1930." In an email dated 7/20/11, Dr. James Cornelius discovered the painting was formally deeded to the Illinois State Historical Library on September, 15, 1976 and it arrived from Hildene two weeks later on October 1, 1976. The painting was then placed on long-term loan to the Governor's Mansion.

72. God does not allow sin to go unpunished. Turner. p. 634. Letter to Edward Lewis Baker. 4/11/1877. Only the impression...Mary Lincoln. Turner. p. 576-577. Letter to Charles Sumner. 9/7/1870. Signature from original Mary Lincoln letter courtesy of Dr. James Cornelius and the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library & Museum.

73. Image based on the below last known photograph of Mary Lincoln from 1872 by William H. Memler.

Endnotes.

1. Mary Lincoln original letter monograms and signature were provided by Dr. James Cornelius.

2. The painting's treatment procedures were:

Surface dirt was removed using a Ph-neutral non-phosphate detergent.
Discolored varnish was removed using organic solvents.
Polyurethane was removed using a glycol/organic solvent.
Oil film was removed using organic solvents.
Areas of former restoration work were removed using scalpel assistance.
Weak areas of paint were reset using a 1:10 gelatin adhesive.
The support was removed from its stretcher.
The former lining and adhesive were removed.
The support was lined to Belgian linen using a non-aqueous adhesive under standard hot-table procedures at 1" of mercury.
The painting was restretched onto a new spring-stretcher.
Areas of loss were filled with gesso (marble dust and 1:10 gelatin).
A brush coat of Winsor & Newton non-yellowing varnish was applied.
Former losses were retouched using Maimeri conservation pigments.
A final non-yellowing spray surface film completed the treatment.
The work was completed over a four-month period, from March 7 to July 16, 2011.

     
     
     

William. H. Mumler "Mary Lincoln" 1872
Library of Congress
Washinton, D.C.